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The Evolution of Crowdsourcing

Posted by Mary Canady October 12th, 2012 .
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Assay Depot’s Kevin Lustig explains how crowdsourcing is changing how scientific research is done in anticipation of our ScienceOnline event October 22nd 2012.

In James Surowiecki’s book “The Wisdom of Crowds” he lays out the criteria for successful decision making by large groups[1]:

  1. Diversity of opinion
  2. Independence
  3. Decentralization
  4. Method of Aggregation of Results
  5. The most successful outcome will be achieved when the four criteria are all present. When you think about it this is very similar to the requirements for successful evolution of a new species. Under selective pressure (e.g., an environmental change that makes the current food source scarce), evolution is more likely to triumph when a species has:

    1. A high level of genetic diversity (diversity of opinion)
    2. Independence (this is a given, evolution has no inherent bias towards one gene over another)
    3. Decentralization (also given, there is no central decision making body, just random chance)
    4. Method of aggregating results  (survival of the fittest, better genes survive and aggregate)

    Viewed in this light, our attempts at crowdsourcing are really attempts to duplicate the effectiveness of evolutions blind watchmaker, and our ability to succeed with this new model of innovation has never been greater than it is today. The Internet has brought people together in ways that were not possible before; the amount of data that is available to those people has also increased to levels that were undreamed of even a decade ago.

    Successes in crowdsourcing to date have been largely restricted to solving mental problems, software or other things that do not require expensive equipment or lab space.  Whirlpool famously transformed itself into one of the most innovative companies in America, in part through the use of crowdsourcing to solve problems and generate new ideas.  In her now famous book about the transformation Dr. Nancy Tennant discusses how Whirlpool went from generating all of their new ideas internally, to over 30% from crowdsourcing during her tenure, with a stated goal of getting to more than 50%[2].

    Examples are now starting to pop up in the Life Sciences. Witness the success of the Foldit program / Game from the University of Washington in Seattle[3]. Foldit challenged on line gamers to rearrange the amino acids in a particular protein (a Diels–Alderase enzyme, one of the work horses of modern synthetic chemistry) with two goals 1. Increase activity 2. Increase stability. The resultant sequence obtained through crowdsourcing was not just better but 13 times better than the starting sequence. Not only that but it is not a solution that could have been arrived at by traditional techniques, the current state of the art in protein engineering  ‘directed evolution’ tends to introduce point mutations; adding, removing, or changing a single amino acid in the sequence. The new structure obtained through crowdsourcing included a 13 amino acid insertion, something beyond the scope of traditional techniques.

    More involved biological research has been waylaid by the difficulties involved in obtaining access to the tools and techniques of modern biology. Most people if so inclined can participate in a thought exercise, can help dream up a new product concept, or can play at manipulating a protein sequence on their computer. But if you need access to a DNA sequencer, or the ability to run a toxicology experiment, well that has historically been a bit more challenging. Enter Assay Depot, an innovative company on the forefront of a new model of decentralized science. Whether it is providing Citizen Scientists with access to the tools and services they need (everything from sequencing a gene, obtaining clinical samples, or even running a phase 3 trial), to providing big Pharma with a low cost, outsourced mechanism to get their own research done.  For the first time in history, all of the resources required for serious biological research are available to anyone that wants them. In one location you can find all of the services you need to take an idea from inception all the way through the drug development process and into patients.

    It is this new model of research that will drive the next generation of discoveries across the entire life sciences industry, including drug discovery. Crowdsourcing and the rise of the citizen scientist represent true quantum leaps forward for research science. A move away from the current model that revolves around uniformity of thinking, institutional dependence, and centralization (the very antithesis of Surowieki’s four axioms) to a rapid, open model that unleashes the power of human intuition at unprecedented levels, borrowing from nature’s most enduring model for coming up with new ideas.

    Perhaps in conclusion, it is worth remembering that the idea of the “Citizen Scientist” is not a new one! Indeed until quite recently in our history of science, it was the modus operandi. So it was that the Modern Atomic Theory was developed by a Quaker School Teacher (John Dalton), the first dinosaur was discovered by a country Doctor (Gideon Mantel), and perhaps the single greatest contribution to science (the Theory of Relativity) came to us from an Austrian Patent Clerk.


    [1] The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations, published in 2004, written by James Surowiecki
    [2] Unleashing Innovation: How Whirlpool Transformed an Industry, published in 2008 written by Nancy Tennant Snyder
    [3] Foldit paper: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=foldit-gamers-solve-riddle


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Interview With ScienceOnline Panelist Suzanne Kennedy: MO BIO Blogger

Posted by Mary Canady October 11th, 2012 .
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Leading up to our first ScienceOnlineSoCal event October 22nd, we’re featuring posts about and from our panelists. I had the chance to speak to Suzanne Kennedy (@suzyscientist) about her experience writing on the MO BIO blog, The Culture Dish.

Besides being MO BIO‘s R&D Director, Suzanne is a veteran blogger, having also written for Bitesize Bio since ’07. The MO BIO blog was started in September ’09 and they post about twice a month. The topics include technical tips, news, events, interviews, and product information. The company, founded in 1993 and located in Carlsbad, specializes in products for DNA/RNA extraction and purification. Suzanne said that they’ve found blog posts with technical tips are the most popular. In posts where products are featured, MO BIO does a great job of adding value by including application information as well.

I asked Suzanne about the benefits of the blog to MO BIO, and at this point she started talking so fast I couldn’t keep up with my notes. She said they get a lot of positive feedback from customers about the blog. In addition, she thinks they get more interactions with customers who might have been intimidated to contact her before. She said that the blog ‘opens a door’ of communication between the scientists who help develop the products and the researchers who use them. These scientist-scientist connections are mutually beneficial as customers may be able to help shape products by expressing their needs or by beta testing early versions of products.

Suzanne also said that scientists also look to her for help on topics outside of the scope of MO BIO’s products, if she posts tips in a certain area. To me, this fact is a sign that researchers are more hungry for help online than ever, and ScienceOnline connections are more becoming more important. Join us October 22nd to help us build these bridges!


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Building A Life Science Team To Meet Your Goals

Posted by Mary Canady July 24th, 2012 .
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Presentation by Mary Canady for the SDBN July 23rd Speed Networking event with hyperlinks and audio.


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Summer Science Activities for Kids: San Diego and Beyond!

Posted by Mary Canady June 21st, 2012 .
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Summer Science Activities for Kids: San Diego and Beyond!

We asked our Twitter ‘think tank’ about summer activities involving science for kids and got some great answers! The links for descriptions of activities are below, and they are followed by resources for parents in San Diego.

Storified by Comprendia · Thu, Jun 21 2012 10:10:00

General Resources

Summer Camp at Steve Spangler ScienceScience is fun. So why leave all the fun to teachers during the school year? Use our Science Summer Camp to keep your youngsters busy, learning and having fun while doing news hands-on science activities! Check back every Monday from June 6th through August 13th for a new experiment to keep your budding scientist engaged this summer.
ExperimentsNo Description Available
Lesson Plans | NOAA’s Aquarius Reef BaseLesson Plans This section includes lesson plans that have links to Aquarius science projects and the physics of underwater diving. The lesson plans were developed for all grade levels and address topics in the Life Sciences, Physical Science, Earth Science, Biology, and Chemistry. Please don’t hesitate to provide feedback based on your classroom experiences.
Scientific American: Bring Science HomeWith the help of our partners, Scientific American features a fun, new, science-related activity every Thursday that parents and their si…
Your child can experience science in the city! Check out Danielle Lee’s excellent blog.
The Urban Scientist: A hip hop maven blogs on urban ecology, evolutionary biology & diversity in the sciences | Scientific American Blog NetworkA hip hop maven blogs on urban ecology, evolutionary biology & diversity in the sciences,
Great book reviews from Joanne Manaster!
Who Are Your FAVORITE Science, Engineering, Tech & Math YouTubers? | VidCon2012Joanne
The Great American Backyard Campout is this weekend! Really, though, you can camp in your backyard any time!
Great American Backyard Campout – National Wildlife FederationSpend the night under the stars with National Wildlife Federation and take your family’s first step into a lifetime filled with healthy, …

San Diego Resources

San Diego Zoo Special Experiences – Zoo Summer Camp 2012Explore the wonderful world of animals through these five-day adventures. All camp programs include TONS of fun-animal encounters, behind…
San Diego Zoo Safari Park Special Experiences – Summer Camp 2012Discover an adventure like no other during the San Diego Zoo Safari Park’s Summer Camp 2012! There may be many types of summer camp for k…
Summer Day Camps | The Living Coast Discovery CenterClick Here to Register Online Radical RaysJune 13-15, 1:30-4:30pm July 16-18, 9:00am-12:00pm This is a camp all about one of the Nature C…
Reuben H. Fleet:: Summer CampRegistration is now open to Members and the General Public. Sign up now! For phone and fax registrations, please download and print the r…
San Diego Air & Space Museum – Balboa Park, San Diegooverview The San Diego Air & Space Museum offers a variety of half-day, week-long summer programs. These classes teach air and space hist…
theNAT :: San Diego Natural History Museum :: Your Nature Connection in Balboa Park :: Summer CampSummer Camp ATtheNAT is where it’s at! Discover dinosaurs, unravel animal mysteries, and explore nature’s wonders! Join the San Diego Nat…
UCSD Youth Camps and Enrichment ProgramsFind out about summer and year-round UCSD camps and enrichment programs for children and teens. These camps and programs held at UCSD are…
Build It WorkshopBuild It Workshop is a children’s creative center. Located in La Mesa, CA. An interactive "open play" environment where parents and their…
Seacamp San DiegoSeacamp San Diego is a marine biology education camp for school groups and indivdual students. At SEACAMP students learn about all aspect…

Thanks to Danielle Lee and Joanne Manaster for help!

DNLee (DNLee5) on TwitterInstantly connect to what’s most important to you. Follow your friends, experts, favorite celebrities, and breaking news.
Joanne Manaster (sciencegoddess) on TwitterInstantly connect to what’s most important to you. Follow your friends, experts, favorite celebrities, and breaking news.

Thumbnail image courtesy Flickr user MissMessie


Biotechnology, Drug Development, Featured, Medical Device, SDBN Blog »

INNOVATION: Finding the way from ordinary to extraordinary

Posted by Jessica Yingling June 12th, 2012 .
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The biggest question in entrepreneurship is how does one take an idea and make it reality, make it something that’s tangible and positively affects an individual and society as a whole. This was the theme at March’s SDBN networking event with Organovo, sponsored by Invetech.

Invetech helps companies translate innovations into breakthrough products.  They work with diagnostics, life sciences, medical devices, industrial, consumer and clean-tech industries.  Based in Australia, Invetech opened an office in San Diego in 2008 and has worked with a number of local companies including Organovo.

From idea to solutions – focus on the need

From what seems science fiction, Organovo has developed a 3D bioprinting technology that can create fully functional human tissues; winning numerous innovation awards, including recognition by Time and MIT Technology Review. Organovo’s 3D human tissues better recapitulate human biology, a critical need for advancing medical research and improving patient care.

Organovo’s 3D bioprinting platform has built a number of tissue types including blood vessels, lung, liver and kidney tissues, nerve guides and cardiac sheets and patches.  The technology is able to architect, without the use of scaffolding, 3 dimensional anatomically correct tissues with integrated microvasculature that can respond to biomechanical and soluble stimuli.  This structural organization of the multiple cell types typical to tissue composition results in tissue-level responses and physiologic processes found in native biology.

These tissue constructs have many applications including disease modeling, discovering new drug candidates, testing therapeutics for safety and efficacy and investigating complex human biology questions.  Ultimately, this technology offers the opportunity to create tissues used as direct therapies.

Innovation is a team effort

Organovo’s 3D bioprinting technology was pioneered by Professor Gabor Forgacs from the University of Missouri, who is also Organovo’s scientific founder.  To advance the technology to a commercial product, Organovo selected Invetech as their technology development partner because of their sophisticated engineering and automation expertise that protected Organovo’s intellectual property, allowing Organovo to focus on its’ key competency in cell biology.

Because 3D bioprinting has so many applications, an important component of Organovo’s strategy resides in developing partner relationships. The company currently has collaborations with multiple pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, and leading research institutions, including Harvard Medical School and the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine.

Innovation doesn’t just happen in the lab

Organovo recently went public with a $15.2 million private placement and is listed on OTCQB under the symbol “ONVO.”  The company was initially funded with angel money and grants.

During this event, Keith Murphy, Chairman and CEO of Organovo, shared some of his insight into the mindset for becoming a successful start-up business owner and what should be part of an entrepreneur’s toolkit.

His tips include:

  1. Take what is around you and find the best possible application for those tools
  2. Plan to weather the storm in your personal finances
  3. Realize that failure is an option but that’s ok, it can be riskier to stay in your comfort zone forever
  4. The best opportunity for angel funding comes from references from your existing network
  5. The four most important words for a successful entrepreneur: network, partners, money, team (not necessarily in this order)

Watch where you are watching

Invetech shared the story about “The Invisible Gorilla Experiment.”  If you have not seen it, click here to view the video and read more about the experiment. Invetech’s point about innovation is to make sure that when you focus on the details, you must also take a step back to focus on the big picture.  Otherwise, you may miss something…something that could be the difference between ordinary and extraordinary.


Invetech will be at Connect with CONNECT on June 21st.

Organovo will be at BIO International Convention in Boston.  Organovo currently has open positions.