In James Surowiecki’s book “The Wisdom of Crowds” he lays out the criteria for successful decision making by large groups:
Diversity of opinion
Method of Aggregation of Results
The most successful outcome will be achieved when the four criteria are all present. When you think about it this is very similar to the requirements for successful evolution of a new species. Under selective pressure (e.g., an environmental change that makes the current food source scarce), evolution is more likely to triumph when a species has:
A high level of genetic diversity (diversity of opinion)
Independence (this is a given, evolution has no inherent bias towards one gene over another)
Decentralization (also given, there is no central decision making body, just random chance)
Method of aggregating results (survival of the fittest, better genes survive and aggregate)
Viewed in this light, our attempts at crowdsourcing are really attempts to duplicate the effectiveness of evolutions blind watchmaker, and our ability to succeed with this new model of innovation has never been greater than it is today. The Internet has brought people together in ways that were not possible before; the amount of data that is available to those people has also increased to levels that were undreamed of even a decade ago.
Successes in crowdsourcing to date have been largely restricted to solving mental problems, software or other things that do not require expensive equipment or lab space. Whirlpool famously transformed itself into one of the most innovative companies in America, in part through the use of crowdsourcing to solve problems and generate new ideas. In her now famous book about the transformation Dr. Nancy Tennant discusses how Whirlpool went from generating all of their new ideas internally, to over 30% from crowdsourcing during her tenure, with a stated goal of getting to more than 50%.
Examples are now starting to pop up in the Life Sciences. Witness the success of the Foldit program / Game from the University of Washington in Seattle. Foldit challenged on line gamers to rearrange the amino acids in a particular protein (a Diels–Alderase enzyme, one of the work horses of modern synthetic chemistry) with two goals 1. Increase activity 2. Increase stability. The resultant sequence obtained through crowdsourcing was not just better but 13 times better than the starting sequence. Not only that but it is not a solution that could have been arrived at by traditional techniques, the current state of the art in protein engineering ‘directed evolution’ tends to introduce point mutations; adding, removing, or changing a single amino acid in the sequence. The new structure obtained through crowdsourcing included a 13 amino acid insertion, something beyond the scope of traditional techniques.
More involved biological research has been waylaid by the difficulties involved in obtaining access to the tools and techniques of modern biology. Most people if so inclined can participate in a thought exercise, can help dream up a new product concept, or can play at manipulating a protein sequence on their computer. But if you need access to a DNA sequencer, or the ability to run a toxicology experiment, well that has historically been a bit more challenging. Enter Assay Depot, an innovative company on the forefront of a new model of decentralized science. Whether it is providing Citizen Scientists with access to the tools and services they need (everything from sequencing a gene, obtaining clinical samples, or even running a phase 3 trial), to providing big Pharma with a low cost, outsourced mechanism to get their own research done. For the first time in history, all of the resources required for serious biological research are available to anyone that wants them. In one location you can find all of the services you need to take an idea from inception all the way through the drug development process and into patients.
It is this new model of research that will drive the next generation of discoveries across the entire life sciences industry, including drug discovery. Crowdsourcing and the rise of the citizen scientist represent true quantum leaps forward for research science. A move away from the current model that revolves around uniformity of thinking, institutional dependence, and centralization (the very antithesis of Surowieki’s four axioms) to a rapid, open model that unleashes the power of human intuition at unprecedented levels, borrowing from nature’s most enduring model for coming up with new ideas.
Perhaps in conclusion, it is worth remembering that the idea of the “Citizen Scientist” is not a new one! Indeed until quite recently in our history of science, it was the modus operandi. So it was that the Modern Atomic Theory was developed by a Quaker School Teacher (John Dalton), the first dinosaur was discovered by a country Doctor (Gideon Mantel), and perhaps the single greatest contribution to science (the Theory of Relativity) came to us from an Austrian Patent Clerk.
Besides being MO BIO‘s R&D Director, Suzanne is a veteran blogger, having also written for Bitesize Bio since ’07. The MO BIO blog was started in September ’09 and they post about twice a month. The topics include technical tips, news, events, interviews, and product information. The company, founded in 1993 and located in Carlsbad, specializes in products for DNA/RNA extraction and purification. Suzanne said that they’ve found blog posts with technical tips are the most popular. In posts where products are featured, MO BIO does a great job of adding value by including application information as well.
I asked Suzanne about the benefits of the blog to MO BIO, and at this point she started talking so fast I couldn’t keep up with my notes. She said they get a lot of positive feedback from customers about the blog. In addition, she thinks they get more interactions with customers who might have been intimidated to contact her before. She said that the blog ‘opens a door’ of communication between the scientists who help develop the products and the researchers who use them. These scientist-scientist connections are mutually beneficial as customers may be able to help shape products by expressing their needs or by beta testing early versions of products.
Suzanne also said that scientists also look to her for help on topics outside of the scope of MO BIO’s products, if she posts tips in a certain area. To me, this fact is a sign that researchers are more hungry for help online than ever, and ScienceOnline connections are more becoming more important. Join us October 22nd to help us build these bridges!
The biggest question in entrepreneurship is how does one take an idea and make it reality, make it something that’s tangible and positively affects an individual and society as a whole. This was the theme at March’s SDBN networking event with Organovo, sponsored by Invetech.
Invetech helps companies translate innovations into breakthrough products. They work with diagnostics, life sciences, medical devices, industrial, consumer and clean-tech industries. Based in Australia, Invetech opened an office in San Diego in 2008 and has worked with a number of local companies including Organovo.
From idea to solutions – focus on the need
From what seems science fiction, Organovo has developed a 3D bioprinting technology that can create fully functional human tissues; winning numerous innovation awards, including recognition by Time and MIT Technology Review. Organovo’s 3D human tissues better recapitulate human biology, a critical need for advancing medical research and improving patient care.
Organovo’s 3D bioprinting platform has built a number of tissue types including blood vessels, lung, liver and kidney tissues, nerve guides and cardiac sheets and patches. The technology is able to architect, without the use of scaffolding, 3 dimensional anatomically correct tissues with integrated microvasculature that can respond to biomechanical and soluble stimuli. This structural organization of the multiple cell types typical to tissue composition results in tissue-level responses and physiologic processes found in native biology.
These tissue constructs have many applications including disease modeling, discovering new drug candidates, testing therapeutics for safety and efficacy and investigating complex human biology questions. Ultimately, this technology offers the opportunity to create tissues used as direct therapies.
Innovation is a team effort
Organovo’s 3D bioprinting technology was pioneered by Professor Gabor Forgacs from the University of Missouri, who is also Organovo’s scientific founder. To advance the technology to a commercial product, Organovo selected Invetech as their technology development partner because of their sophisticated engineering and automation expertise that protected Organovo’s intellectual property, allowing Organovo to focus on its’ key competency in cell biology.
Because 3D bioprinting has so many applications, an important component of Organovo’s strategy resides in developing partner relationships. The company currently has collaborations with multiple pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, and leading research institutions, including Harvard Medical School and the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine.
Innovation doesn’t just happen in the lab
Organovo recently went public with a $15.2 million private placement and is listed on OTCQB under the symbol “ONVO.” The company was initially funded with angel money and grants.
During this event, Keith Murphy, Chairman and CEO of Organovo, shared some of his insight into the mindset for becoming a successful start-up business owner and what should be part of an entrepreneur’s toolkit.
His tips include:
Take what is around you and find the best possible application for those tools
Plan to weather the storm in your personal finances
Realize that failure is an option but that’s ok, it can be riskier to stay in your comfort zone forever
The best opportunity for angel funding comes from references from your existing network
The four most important words for a successful entrepreneur: network, partners, money, team (not necessarily in this order)
Watch where you are watching
Invetech shared the story about “The Invisible Gorilla Experiment.” If you have not seen it, click here to view the video and read more about the experiment. Invetech’s point about innovation is to make sure that when you focus on the details, you must also take a step back to focus on the big picture. Otherwise, you may miss something…something that could be the difference between ordinary and extraordinary.